Government of West Bengal
Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
(A Statutory Body under Urban Development & Municipal Affairs Department)

Introducing KMDA


Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA; erstwhile CMDA) is constituted as a statutory body under the State Government under Section 3 of the President’s Act 17 of 16th July, 1970. Later that was sanctified under the CMDA Act of 1972 (The West Bengal Act XI of 4th May, 1972). In 1979, the CMDA Act, 1972 was repealed by the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning and Development) Act, 1979. Nevertheless, the Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority constituted under the CMDA Act meant the same as the WBT&C(P&D) Act. Subject to the provisions of the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act, 1979 and the rules made there under and any direction which the State Government may give, from time to time, the powers and functions of KMDA shall be in accordance with the section 13 of the WBT&C(P&D) Act, 1979.

KMDA performs its functions over Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Area or Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA). Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) is the metropolitan outfit of the city of Kolkata, situated at the east bank of river Hooghly. However, the metro core consists of the twin cities on either side of river Hooghly, viz. Kolkata and Howrah. At present, KMA extends over six districts situated on either side of the River Hooghly namely Kolkata, Howrah, Hooghly, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas. The area comprises of 4 Municipal Corporation (MC), 37 Municipalities (M) and 23 Panchayat Samities (PS). The approximate geographic extents of the present KMA including the river Hooghly is about 1876sqkm. KMA held a population of around 15.87 million, according to 2011 Census, as against the total urban population of West Bengal of around 29 million. The population of KMA is projected at 21.1 million in 2025.

An important demographic attribute of KMA is that its average residential density is the highest among the metropolises in India at around 8500 persons per sqkm. As for the growth of population, the city of Kolkata has been witnessing sharp decline whereas the same has been growing at higher rates in the municipal towns immediately surrounding Kolkata City. The demographic primacy of KMA has been to some extent the result of a vibrant economy that the metropolis experienced over a sustained period of time in the history. KMA's contribution to Spatial Development Planning is estimated to be around 30%, although KMA accounts for only 18% of the State's population. KMA accounts for three-fourths of the organised sector industries and employment KMA houses the major financial, commercial, educational, health, research and other organisations that cater to the requirements of not only of KMA but also the entire State, the eastern region and the country. The per capita income in KMA is much higher than what it is in the rest of the State and this has created an opportunity for growth of various service sector industries including real estate development.

The State is now poised for rapid pace of industrialization and KMA has to play an important role in facilitating the process of industrial growth. It is not only to support the future population but also the emerging economic activities within KMA like the IT and ITeS industries, specialised financial services, necessary infrastructure and facilities shall have to be created through planned interventions such that the growth in population and economic activities could be sustained in a healthy and environment friendly manner.

... Role of KMDA:
KMDA, established in 1970 under Presidential Ordinance and later sanctified under the KMDA Act of 1972, functioned essentially as a development agency with the specific purpose of carrying out major infrastructure development in KMA. With the enactment of West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development Act in 1979, KMDA was designated as the statutory planning and development authority for KMA. Between 1970 and 1981 KMDA functioned as an overarching development authority in KMA, as most of the units of local self government in KMA were under suspension with no elected representation in place. It is only with the State Government's avowed policy of decentralised planning and development across the urban and rural areas of the State that elected representation was installed in all the urban local bodies of the State including those in KMA. KMDA has been working in tandem with the elected ULBs towards the overall development of KMA.

The process of decentralised planning and development had taken a further stride following the enactment of West Bengal Metropolitan Planning Committee (WBMPC) Act in 1994 in line with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992. Following the provisions of WBMPC Act of 1994, Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee (KMPC) had been established in KMA towards the end of 2000. Of the 60-member KMPC, 40 are elected from amongst the local elected representatives. The WBMPC Act provides for preparation of a Draft Development Plan for KMA by KMPC having regard to the plans prepared by the individual units of local self-government. The Act further mandates that KMPC should co-ordinate all the development activities undertaken by the different agencies of the State and Central Governments within the geographical boundaries of KMA to ensure conformity of developmental actions to the development plans, KMDA has become the Technical Secretariat of KMPC KMDA has always been sensitive to the needs of carrying out urban development on ground. To accelerate the process of urban infrastructure development, KMDA has been the pioneer in enlisting private sector participation by invoking the paradigm of public-private partnership in development and management of urban development projects. Above all, with the evolution of functions of KMDA over more than 40 years, KMDA has become an epitome for urban planning and development in KMA.

Broad functional domains of KMDA
As already mentioned, KMDA's functional domains broadly extend over three areas, namely, (a) regulatory functions; (b) planning for development; and (c) project implementation, Besides these major functional areas, KMDA is also engaged in providing consultancy services and implementing projects on behalf of other public sector departments and agencies. Under provisions of the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act 1979, KMDA has to prepare existing land Use Maps and Registers (LUMRs) for different zones within KMA to be able to prepare land Use and Development Control Plans for those sub areas, KMDA has to follow the process of preparation of LUMRs and LUDCPs as laid down in the Act itself, Adoption of the statutory planning documents is preceded by publication of the documents for public inspection, invitation of public objection, hearing of public objection and incorporation of the necessary modifications in these documents. The LUDCPs provide for regulatory measures, enforcement of which would lead to obtaining an environment-friendly, urban growth subject to protection and conservation of exhaustible natural resources and heritage. As the process of official adoption of LUDCPs usually takes a longer time, Development Control Regulation (DCRs) are often drafted and enforced to prevent unregulated and haphazard use and development of land, as an interim measure. In most cases, the responsibility of enforcement of LUDCPs and DCR are delegated to the units of local self-government. KMDA, however, retains the enforcement power to itself in selected areas/zones.

KMDA is engaged in carrying out different levels of planning exercise right from perspective plan to formulation of investment programme, KMDA keeps on updating the perspective plan and sectoral development plans to take into account the changing physical, social and other contexts. KMDA does these exercises at periodic intervals. Whereas the perspective plan sets out the broad goals and objectives and puts forward a 'vision' to be achieved over a longer period of time, the sectoral master or development plans set out the norms and standards of infrastructure, services, the projected requirement of such infrastructure and services, the strategies to be adopted for achieving the projected requirement and an indicative requirement of funds for the purpose, KMDA is in the process of updating the visioning exercise into 'Vision 2035'. KMDA strives to ensure that the project-level interventions conform to the long-term plans.

KMDA formulates short-term action plans based on inter se priorities between different sectors of infrastructure, between zones of KMA and between economic groups of beneficiaries. Based on short term action plans, KMDA undertakes preparation of project reports towards execution of the same by adopting a competitive tendering process. A large number of projects have so far been executed by KMDA covering different sectors of infrastructure, such as, water supply, sewerage and drainage, traffic and transportation, township and area development, housing and slum improvement, commercial complexes, parks and playground and so on and so forth. It should be very pertinent to note that in design of interventions, the urban poor have always received priority attention. KMDA's interventions have not confined to development of physical infrastructure alone and have extended to cover the fields of health and community development especially of the urban poor. Notwithstanding the mandates laid down in the WBT&CP Act and WBMPC Act, KMDA willy-nilly has to operate and maintain some infrastructure facilities, especially those trans-municipal in nature.

KMDA has been designated as the nodal agency for implementation of the Government of India sponsored Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) for Kolkata and Asansol urban areas. KMDA would also function as one of the executing agencies for JnNURM projects in KMA. KMDA has been approached by different government department/agencies for planning, designing and implementing certain projects that require specialized skills. This has happened because of the credibiIity that KMDA has achieved over the long years of its existence. KMDA is provided with the funds for implementing the projects on turnkey basis and is allowed to retain service charges at mutually acceptable rates. In KMDA parlance, these are called 'deposit works'. KMDA has also extended consultancy services to government departments and agencies in specific areas. Introduction of Geographic Information System (GIS) in municipal functioning has been one of the prime areas where KMDA has provided a great deal of consultancy services to ULBs.

KMDA Organisation
KMDA is a parastatal-an authority functioning under the administrative control of Urban Development Department of Government of West Bengal. KMDA derives its powers and functions from the provisions of WBT&CP Act, 1979. KMDA has an 11-member Board or Authority that includes both elected people's representatives and nominated bureaucrats. The Hon'ble Minister-in-charge of Urban Development, Government of West Bengal is the ex-officio Chairman of the Board of KMDA. All the members of KMDA Board are also members of the KMPC, which has been done with a view to providing functional convergence between the two bodies. The Hon'ble Chief Minister of West Bengal is however the Chairman of KMPC. The Board or Authority of KMDA takes all major policy decisions that are incidental to running the business of KMDA. However, for decisions in certain matters that may have impacts across other organisations and areas outside KMA, the same are forwarded to the State Government via the Urban Development Department, after the Authority of KMDA recommends the same. KMDA's day-to-day administration and planning and development activities are carried out under several directorates under control of a Chief Executive Officer-a senior lAS officer. The administrative functions are primarily organised under Secretary, again an lAS officer, through a number of functional units. The technical functions of planning and project formulation and execution are performed by 6 Sectors and Planning Directorate in KMDA–each usually headed by an officer in the rank of Director/Chief Engineer. In addition, KMDA has a separate directorate for finance headed by a Director. All the heads of directorates report to CEO directly or via some officer of the rank in between such as Director General or Secretary or Special Secretary. The KIT and KMWSA have merged with KMDA w.e.f. 28.04.2017 in terms of Kolkata Improvement Trust and Kolkata Metropolitan Water & Sanitation Authority Repealing Act and amendment of West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act, 2017.

KMDA's Planning Activities
KMDA's planning activities include both short & long term plans for planned development of the entire KMA. Planning Activities of KMA includes, Statutory Planning, Advance Planning, Project Planning and Socio-economic Planning.

Statutory Planning Unit (SPU) is currently engaged in amending the Land Use and Development Control Plan (LUDCP) of 4 Corporations, 37 Municipalities and different Panchayat Samities within KMA and according of development permissions to different development projects within KMA. 'Single Window Committee' constituted by KMDA is also giving development permission and sanction to the major projects like the Kolkata Logistic Hub at Howrah, Kolkata West International City (KWIQ at Howrah and Integrated IT Town Ship & Auto Ancillary Park (of BSHC Pvt Ltd.) at Uttarpara with active support of SPU. Preparation of 'Conceptual Master Plan' for 'Sector-VI, Industrial Township' at Bantala is currently being dealt by SPU. Advance Planning Unit (APU) is carrying out different levels of planning exercises such as periodical updating of Perspective Plan for entire KMA (such as, VISION 2030) and Environment Plan of KMDA, as well as Development Plans for Peri-urban areas and New Settlement Areas. APU has also been engaged in formulating and reviewing different norms and policies such as Green Building Norms and Road Safety Policy in recent past They are also engaged in evaluating and assessments of trend and pattern of urban growth within KMA. Advance Planning Unit also provides handholding support to the activities of Statutory Planning Unit as and when required.

Project Planning Unit (PPU) prepares architectural drawings and designs in respect of housing, landscaping and beautification, urban renewal, heritage and new area developments. PPU also provides planning support to the projects relating to facility and amenities and other deposit works in KMDA. Some of the projects handled by the Unit are Floating Market at Patuli, Kalyani Medical College and Logistic hubs & Town Hall for NDITA. Project Planning Unit is also actively engaged in evaluation of River Front Development and Township Projects within and beyond KMA. APU & PPU are jointly preparing an inventnry of GHG emission towards combating 'Climate Change' based on guidelines of 'C40 Network of Cities'.

Socio-economic Planning Unit (SEPU) is preparing a document -'Population Profile of KMA'. It is basically a document based on up-gradation of relevant Census data from 2001 to 2011 of KMA.

KMDA's Development Activities under JnNURM
JnNURM is continuing to be one of the major programmatic interventions that KMDA ts currently engaged in as both the Nodal and the Implementing Agency. 40 projects in KMA under the Urban Infrastructures & Governance (UIG), Sub-Mission I of JnNURM worth of Rs 4080.08 crore have already been completed. 22 ongoing projects worth of Rs 2655.02 crore have been taken up. Some of the major projects include flyover from Parama to Park Circus, Construction of elevated road between Jinjira Bazar and Batanagar on Budge Budge Trunk Road, Four Lane Flyover from Ramnagar More (Garden Reach) to Remount Road (near Kantapukur Morgue) in Kolkata, BRTS from Ultadanga to Garia in Kolkata Metropolitan Area, 24x7 Water Supply Scheme for Panihati Municipality, Trans-municipal Water Supply Project for Municipal Towns of Madhyamgram, New Barrackpore and Barasat, Storm Water Drainage System for South Dum Dum, Baruipur and Rishra Municipality, Four Lane Flyover at Kamalgazi Intersection on EM Bypass Connector. 16 UIG projects worth Rs 1486.90 crore are likely to be completed by March 2017. Another 5 projects namely Construction of Interchange at Dunlop junction at Kolkata, Barrackpore-Kalyani-Dum Dum Expressway Road Project within KMA, Construction of Elevated Road between Jinjira Bazar and Batanagar on Budge Budge Trunk Road, Four Lane Flyover from Ramnagar More (Garden Reach) to Remount Road (near Katapukur Morgue) in Kolkata and Flyover from Parama to Park Circus are likely to be completed by March 2018. Under the Basic Services for Urban Poor (BSUP) Sub Mission II of JnNURM in KMA, 97,120 dwelling units have been completed for slum dwellers, 5024 dwelling units are under construction.

Besides in NURM, GAP Sector has been constructing Municipal Waste Water projects under NGRBA at Kalyani and Bhatpara Municipalities at cost of Rs 332 crore and Rs 121 crore respectively. Two new MWW projects under NGRBA with World Bank Financial Assistance worth Rs 274.76 crore & 145.98 crore, respectively at Halisahar and Budge Budge Municipal towns have been sanctioned and will be implemented shortly.

This apart, one joint venture PPP Project development of tourism will be coming up by installing a Ferris Wheel including other tourist amenities in the Millennium Park in Kolkata on the bank of the River Hooghly with investment of Rs 300 crore. River Front Development project for different Municipal Town will be coming up soon under Namami Gange for Ganga Rejuvenation. The Work of Garden Reach Flyover is under process. "Sewerage Scheme and STP" at Halisahar Town under the Infrastructure Investment component of the World Bank assisted National Ganga river Basin Project has started and is scheduled to be completed by April 2016. The integrated sewage treatment system work consisting of sewerage system treatment Municipal waste collection, in both Bhatpara and Kalyani have been taken up and work is expected to be completed by April 2016. KMDA is responsible for planned development of the entire KMA. To accommodate the future activities of Kolkata Metropolis Township, projects are also underway at Baruipur, Debanandapur and extended part of East Kolkata.

Thus KMDA strives to achieve development in Kolkata Metropolitan Area for the benefits of all sections of society.